The Great St. Bernard Pass connects Switzerland to Italy. At 2, 473 metres, it is the highest mountain pass in Europe. The famous monastery of St. Bernard, which was founded in the eleventh century, lies about a mile away. For hundreds of years, St. Bernard dogs have saved the lives of travellers crossing the dangerous Pass. These friendly dogs, which were first brought from Asia, were used as watchdogs even in Roman times. Now that a tunnel has been built through the mountains, the Pass is less dangerous, but each year, the dogs are still sent out into the snow whenever a traveller is in difficulty. Despite the new tunnel, there are still a few people who rashly attempt to cross the Pass on foot.
During the summer months, the monastery is very busy, for it is visited by thousands of people who cross the Pass in cars. As there are so many people about, the dogs have to be kept in a special enclosure. In winter, however, life at the monastery is quite different. The temperature drops to -30° and very few people attempt to cross the Pass. The monks prefer winter to summer for they have more privacy. The dogs have greater freedom, too, for they are allowed to wander outside their enclosure. The only regular visitors to the monastery in winter are parties of skiers who go there at Christmas and Easter. These young people, who love the peace of the mountains, always receive a warm welcome at St. Bernard’s monastery.
monastery n. 修道院
monastery 庙 temple 清真寺 mosque /mɑsk/
和尚 monk 修女/尼姑/女出家人 nun
女修道院 nunnery / convent
St. Bernard 圣伯纳德（地名）
saint => St.
St. Andrew’s Road
St. Paul’s Cathedral 圣保罗大教堂
St. Valentine’s Day 情人节
rashly ad. 莽撞地，冒失地
rash a rash decision
Don’t make rash promises. 不要轻易许诺。
He was fined $100 for reckless driving.
impulsive 冲动的 impulse
She’s so impulsive——she saw the house for the first time and said she’d buy it straight away.
enclosure n. 围场，圈地
enclosure movement 圈地运动
be enclosed by …
The garden was completely enclosed by a high wall.
by surrounded by （5课）
She said that she wanted to die surrounded by the people she loves.
be besieged by … （军队）包围
Troy was besieged by Greeks.
privacy n. 清净，隐私，个人自由
protect / respect / invade sb.'s privacy 保护 / 尊重 / 侵犯隐私
注意：ate 的发音，作动词末尾时，读 /eɪt/。形容词或名词末尾时读 /ət/。（Lesson8单词讲解 18:20）
第一句：The Great St. Bernard Pass connects Switzerland to Italy.
connect A with / to B
link A with / to B
join A to B
The Channel Tunnel has connected Britain with mainland Europe for the first time.
(17课) The Verrazano Bridge, which was designed by Othmar Ammann, joins Brooklyn to Staten Island.
抽象的“联系”可以用 connect 或 link.
There is no evidence to link / connect him with the murder.
associate A with B
relate A to B
(23课) There are countless people who, ever since their early years, have learned to associate snails with food.
tz 发 /ts/ 的音。类似情形如：
第二句：At 2, 473 metres, it is the highest mountain pass in Europe.
at … 这里表示海拔高度
=> at an altitude of …
造句：4807 米的勃朗峰（Mont Blanc）是阿尔卑斯山脉（the Alps）的最高峰。
At 4. 807 meters, Mont Blanc is the highest peak of the Alps.
（复习）注意，这里 Alps 前的 the 读 /ðiː/，因为 Alps 以元音开头。
第三句：The famous monastery of St. Bernard, which was founded in the eleventh century, lies about a mile away.
（复习）The famous monastery of St. Bernard，of 引出名称
(3课) the Aegean island of Kea
(3课) the promontory of Ayia Irini
(16课) the tiny village of Perachora
the novel of Three Kingdoms X
=> the novel entitled Three Kingdoms
（复习）这一句可以使用 “追溯到… date from” 替代 “was found in”
(3课) The body of one status was found among remains dating from the fifteenth century B.C.
date from … / date back to … / can be traced back to …
（复习）lies 和 stands 的区别 （第三课）
第四句：For hundreds of years, St. Bernard dogs have saved the lives of travellers crossing the dangerous Pass.
cross + 宾语 + 方式状语
动词 + across + 宾语
cross the Pass on foot => walk across the pass
cross the Pass in cars => drive across the pass
row across the Caribbean => cross the Caribbean by boat.
(12课) They quickly loaded a small rubber dinghy with food, matches, and tins of beer and rowed for a few miles across the Caribbean until they arrived at a tiny coral island.
row across the Caribbean
(20课) In 1908 Lord Northcliffe offered a prize of £1000 to the first man who would fly across the English Channel（英吉利海峡）.
第五句：These friendly dogs, which were first brought from Asia, were used as watchdogs even in Roman times.
bring … from … 从 … 带来
introduce … from … 从 … 引进
本句可以改为 …, which were introduced from Asia, …
The grey squirrel was introduced into Britain from North America.
(4-17课) In the early days of the settlement of Australia, enterprising settlers unwisely introduced the European rabbit.
第六句：Now that a tunnel has been built through the mountains, the Pass is less dangerous, but each year, the dogs are still sent out into the snow whenever a traveller is in difficulty.
now (that) conj. 同时表示时间和原因，接现在时
Now (that) you are a big boy you must behave better.
tunnel n. 隧道，地道
the Channel Tunnel 英吉利海峡隧道
canal /kə’næl/ n. 运河
the Panama canal 巴拿马运河
（复习）疑问句 + ever 的含义
- 表示 “到底…” 引导疑问句
(2课) ‘Whatever are you doing up here Bill?’ asked the vicar in surprise.
- 表示 “无论…” 引导让步状语从句
= no matter + 疑问词
(1课) Wherever it went, it left behind it a trail of dead deer and small animals like rabbits.
=> No matter where it went, …
新意义：“疑问词 + ever” 表示 “无论” 时还可以用于名词性从句，此时 ≠ “no matter + 疑问词”，因为后者只能用于让步状语从句。（复习）名词性从句：主语、宾语、表语、同位语从句。
Whoever wants to sign up for the course is welcome. ✓
No matter who wants to sign up for the course is welcome. X
句子缺少主语，no matter who 引导让步状语从句。
No matter who wants to sign up for the course, he is welcome. ✓
Whatever project he works on is always successful.
=> No matter what project he works on, it is always successful.
第七句：Despite the new tunnel, there are still a few people who rashly attempt to cross the Pass on foot.
attempt to do
try to do
make an attempt / effort to do
seek to do （书面）
(38课) But the historian attempting to reconstruct the distant past is always faced with a difficult task.
I made an attempt to apologize, but Brian wouldn’t even talk to me.
(20课) Over a year passed before the first attempt was made.
(38课) It seems that man was making a real effort to understand the seasons 20,000 years earlier than has been supposed.
(4-24课) … if, in a word, beauty means something, yet we must not seek to interpret the meaning.
第八句：During the summer months, the monastery is very busy, for it is visited by thousands of people who cross the Pass in cars.
month /mʌnθ/ 复数 months /mʌnθs/
th 不发音。又因为前面有 n, 所以实际的读音类似 /mʌnts/（不严谨地说）。（Lesson 8 课文讲解(二) 2:00）
in cars = by car 表示 “使用某种交通工具”的介词短语，注意人称和数的变化。
You can go to the airport in my car.
We crossed the river in a boat.
第九句：As there are so many people about, the dogs have to be kept in a special enclosure.
(With) so many people (being) about, the dogs have to be …
keep: confine 把 … 关起来
He was kept / confined in prison.
You shouldn’t keep / confine the bird in a cage.
第十句：In winter, however, life at the monastery is quite different.
life at the monastery
life on a desert island (12课)
life in the army (30课)
life on campus 校园生活
quite ad. completely 完全，截然
quite different 截然不同
(12课) The other side of the picture is quite the opposite. 截然相反
(30课) He used to sleep during the day and work at night, quite unaware of the fact that he had become the ghost of Endley. 完全没有意识到
第十一句：The temperature drops to -30° and very few people attempt to cross the Pass.
temperature /'temp(ə)rətʃə/ （英）/'tɛmprətʃɚ/] （美）
注意重音在前面。 literature 也是类似的情况， /r/ 不能重读。（课文讲解二，17:20）
drop / fall
The temperature falls to -30°
(50课) Little by little the eleven minutes fell to zero.
plunge v. & n. 跳进，跳水
也可以用 “dive to … 跳水，潜水”
(10课) The order to abandon ship was given and hundreds of people plunged into the icy water.
The temperature plunges to -30°
increase to …
rise to …
rocket to … 暴涨（到） …
soar to … 上升（本义鸟儿飞翔）
The temperature drops by 10°
minus 30 degrees
30 degrees below zero
-30°C: minus 30 degrees Centigrade / Celsius
-30°F: minus 30 degrees Fahrenheit /'færən’haɪt/
第十二句：The monks prefer winter to summer for they have more privacy.
prefer A to B
prefer A rather than B
I prefer mutton to beef.
prefer doing to doing
prefer to do rather than do
I prefer standing to sitting down.
I prefer to stand rather than sit down.（sit 是让狗坐下，sit down 是请人坐）
宁愿 … 也不 … would rather do than do （书面上有区别）
I**'d rather** stand than sit down.
(14课) … people would rather pay large sums of money than have their life work destroyed by gangsters.
第十三句：The dogs have greater freedom, too, for they are allowed to wander outside their enclosure.
allow / permit sb. to do, give sb. permission to do
wander: to walk aimlessly = roam 闲逛
第十四句：The only regular visitors to the monastery in winter are parties of skiers who go there at Christmas and Easter.
regular visitor 常客，口语中也可以直接用 regular 代替。
He is one of our restaurant’s regulars.
What’ll it be? 您要点什么？
The usual, please. 跟以前一样。
a party of tourists
a search party
a rescue party
group / bunch / crowd / band
(14课) Six hundred years ago, Sir John Hawkwood arrived in Italy with a band of soldiers and settled near Florence.
on Christmas Day / Easter Day 在圣诞节、复活节
at Christmas 圣诞假期
on / at weekends
第十五句：These young people, who love the peace of the mountains, always receive a warm welcome at St. Bernard’s monastery.
receive a welcome 受到欢迎
be welcomed 受到欢迎（被动）
Let’s all extend a warm welcome to our visitors. 致以欢迎
receive + n. 受到；得到；遭到
(23课) No creature has received more praise and abuse than the common garden snail. (snail 蜗牛)
receive insults 受到侮辱
receive support 得到支持
receive adequate treatment 受到治疗
receive good education
(31课) This exhibition received a great deal of attention in the press, …