We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where people first learned to write. But there are some parts of the world where even now people cannot write. The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagas – legends handed down from one generation of story tellers to another. These legends are useful because they can tell us something about migrations of people who lived long ago, but none could write down what they did. Anthropologists wondered where the remote ancestors of the Polynesian peoples now living in the Pacific Islands came from. The sagas of these people explain that some of them came from Indonesia about 2,000 years ago.
But the first people who were like ourselves lived so long ago that even their sagas, if they had any, are forgotten. So archaeologists have neither history nor legends to help them to find out where the first ‘modern men’ came from.
Fortunately, however, ancient men made tools of stone, especially flint, because this is easier to shape than other kinds. They may also have used wood and skins, but these have rotted away. Stone does not decay, and so the tools of long ago have remained when even the bones of the men who made them have disappeared without trace.
recount v. 叙述，讲述
recount / relate / report sth. to sb.
tell sb. (about) sth.
She recounted the events of the previous week to the police.
(3-56课) We know instinctively, just as beekeepers with their bees, that misfortune might overtake us if the important events of our lives were not related to it.
(28课) History does not relate whether his friend accepted his medical help, but in all probability he did.
(3-16课) After telling several of his friends about the theft, Dimitri found out that his neighbour, Aleko, had suddenly acquired a new lamb.
account account for … 占… 比例; 解释
Afro-Americans account for 12% of the US population. （占比）
The gene they discovered doesn’t account for all those cases. （解释）
Members get a 20% discount.
saga n. 长篇英雄传说
saga: a prose narrative recorded in Iceland in the Middle Ages. It’s written about the Vikings of Norway and Iceland.
legend 传说；传奇 legendary a. 传奇的
Robin Hood is a legendary hero.
myth / mythology 神话
myth 可以当可数名词；mythology 是神话题材，不可数
migration n. 迁移，移居
migrate v. 移居；迁徙 migration migrant n. 迁徙的人/动物；如候鸟
immigrate v. 移民 immigration immigrant
illegal / permanent immigrants
emigrate from immigrate to
Europeans emigrating from their homelands after World War II were encouraged to immigrate to Australia.
anthropologist n. 人类学家
“anthrop-” = man 人类
Gorillas（大猩猩）, chimpanzees（黑猩猩） and gibbons（长臂猿） are all anthropoid apes（猿）.
The pending extinction of some species are caused by anthropogenic factors, directly or indirectly.
philanthropist /fɪ’lænθrəpɪst/ 慈善家
“phil” = love philosopher 哲学家
“(o)logy” = to study biology （3-2课）
ancestor n. 祖先
an (=ante，在前面) + ces (to go) + tor (person)
Yandi and Huangdi are the legendary ancestors of the Chinese nation.
祖先 (+) forefather forebear
后代 descendant 动物的崽，后代 offspring
He is a direct descendant of Confucius.
the conflict between parents and their offspring.
These works of art are preserved for posterity.
rot v. 腐烂
Too much candy will rot your teeth / make your teeth rot.
rot away 烂掉
rotten a. 腐烂的，道德败坏的
One rotten apple spoils the whole barrel.
Too much candy will decay your teeth / make your teeth decay.
decay 比 rot 更正式，有“衰退”的意思
Each civilization is born, it culminates, and it decays.
Finding fossil man
fossil man: ancient man; prehistoric man
encourage -> spur
prohibit / forbid -> ban
compete -> vie
nominate -> name
第一课 Finding fossil man
第二课 Spare that spider
第三课 Matterhorn man
第四课 The sporting spirit
Pride and Prejudice 傲慢与偏见
Prince and Pauper 王子与贫儿
World Wide Watch 世界观察
A Delicious Dish A Day 天天饮食
Beauty and the Beast
第一句：We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where people first learned to write.
read of … 读到
speak of / talk of … 谈到 hear of / learn of / know of 谈到
think of, dream of
这里的 of 相当于 about
Of Truth 《论真理》
Of Death, Of love, Of Envy, Of Human Bondage 《人性枷锁》, …
I saw him at the party yesterday.
(4课) Several cases have been reported in Russia recently of people who can read and detect colors with their fingers, and even see through solid doors and walls.
(5课) He maybe conceited, ill-mannered, presumptuous or fatuous, but I do not turn for protection to dreary cliches about respect of elders—as if mere age were a reason for respect.
(考研翻译) What is an intellectual? I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in Socratic way about moral problems.
(考研阅读) As a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership.
We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, because people first learned to write there.
=> We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where people first learned to write.
We endeavour to avoid the old, romantic idea of a gusher, because it wastes oil and gas.
=> (13课) We endeavour to avoid the old, romantic idea of a gusher, which wastes oil and gas.
The small shop, Elkor, after she had been searching the Barents Sea for weeks, was on its way home.
=> (3-32课) The small shop, Elkor, which had been searching the Barents Sea for weeks, was on its way home.
Much to the aristocrat;s amusement, the gaoler returned a few moments later with a pair of glasses and the usual copy of the letter and he proceeded to read it to the prisoner.
=> (3-22课) Much to the aristocrat;s amusement, the gaoler returned a few moments later with a pair of glasses and the usual copy of the letter which he proceeded to read to the prisoner.
造句：最近几年大批农民工（migrant workers from the countryside）涌入大城市，因为他们在那里可以找到不错的工作且养活家人。
The past few years witnessed the great influx of migrant workers from the country side to big cities, where they could secure decent jobs and support their families.
第二句：But there are some parts of the world where even now people cannot write.
There seem / appear to be …
There used to be …
There happen to be …
There is / are going to be …
There are more and more people who are interested in English.
=> There is growing interest in English.
People generally agree that women should enjoy full equality with men.
=> There is general agreement that women should enjoy full equality with men.
造句：现在世界上依然有部分地区人们还吃不饱肚子（cannot satisfy one’s hunger）。
There are some parts of the world where even now people cannot satisfy their hunger.
第三句：The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagas – legends handed down from one generation of story tellers to another.
（复习，3-3课）preserve 保护，保存（keep sth. in good condition）；conserve 保护（数量）；reserve（保留，保护）
preserve historical records
preserve food / one’s eyesight
conserve natural resources
All I have to do is dream.
The best thing you can do now is write her an apology.
(3-60课) The only thing to do was ask them to come half an hour later than the other guests. Then they arrived just when we wanted them.
hand sth. down: pass sth. from older people to younger ones.
The recipe was handed down from an ancestor of the family.
story-teller tell stories
fortune-teller tell one’s fortune
第五句：Anthropologists wondered where the remote ancestors of the Polynesian peoples now living in the Pacific Islands came from.
remote 久远的 remote ancestors 远祖
a distant relative 远亲
a close / near relative 近亲
第七句：But the first people who were like ourselves lived so long ago that even their sagas, if they had any, are forgotten.
写作中的实词互相替换，如 fossil man 表示为：
the first people who were like ourselves
people who lived long ago
the first modern man
people who were like ourselves 介词
people who were similar to ourselves => people who similar to ourselves 形容词（be similar to）
people who were resembling ourselves 动词
people who bearing a resemblance to ourselves 名词（bear a resemblance to …）
bear a resemblance to …
Your school may have done away with winners and losers, but life doesn’t not. In some schools they have abolished failing grades; they’ll give you as many times as you want to get the right answer. This doesn’t bear the slightest resemblance to anything in real life.
His descendants, if any, never left the island.
He is seldom, if ever, absent from work.
第九句：Fortunately, however, ancient men made tools of stone, especially flint, because this is easier to shape than other kinds.
shape v. 塑形
He shaped the clay into a vase.
Like it or not, our experiences shape our personalities.
He thundered at the door. 他用力敲门。
The street was veiled in darkness. 黑夜笼罩着街道。
A gust of wind whipped the dust along the road. 一阵风卷起了路边的灰尘。
Honey, I forgot to duck. 亲爱的，我忘记躲了。
第十句：They may also have used wood and skins, but these have rotted away.
（复习）may / might have done 对过去的肯定的推测
must have done （语气更重一点）
cannot / could not have done （否定的推测）
should / ought to have done （带一点批评/自责）
should not / ought not to have done
（复习）fur and feather 飞禽走兽 fin, fur and feather 各种动物
A bald slipped out of the house. （boy）
He has been messing around with several skirts of his class. （girl）
The crown should not yield to the cross. （王权；神权）
第十一句：Stone does not decay, and so the tools of long ago have remained when even the bones of the men who made them have disappeared without trace.
He walks when he might take a taxi.
Why do you walk when you have a car?
disappear / vanish without trace
The burglar slipped out of the house and then disappear / vanish without trace.