Modern alpinists try to climb mountains by a route which will give them good sport, and the more difficult it is, the more highly it is regarded. In the pioneering days, however, this was not the case at all. The early climbers were looking for the easiest way to the top, because the summit was the prize they sought, especially if it had never been attained before. It is true that during their explorations they often faced difficulties and dangers of the most perilous nature, equipped in a manner which would make a modern climber shudder at the thought, but they did not go out of their way to court such excitement. They had a single aim, a solitary goal – the top!
It is hard for us to realize nowadays how difficult it was for the pioneers. Except for one or two places such as Zermatt and Chamonix, which had rapidly become popular, Alpine villages tended to be impoverished settlements cut off from civilization by the high mountains. Such inns as there were were generally dirty and flea-ridden; the food simply local cheese accompanied by bread often twelve months old, all washed down with coarse wine. Often a valley boasted no inn at all, and climbers found shelter wherever they could – sometimes with the local priest who was usually as poor as his parishioners, sometimes with shepherds or cheese-makers. Invariably the background was the same: dirt and poverty, and very uncomfortable. For men accustomed to eating seven-course dinners and sleeping between fine linen sheets at home, the change to the Alps must have been very hard indeed.
pioneer n. 先驱，探索者；v. 开拓，探索
Young Pioneers 少先队
Henry Ford was a pioneer in the auto industry.
The Wright brothers pioneered in early aviation.
pioneering work, … spirit, in the pioneering days
break new ground 开拓、探索
Deng Xiaoping’s reform programs broke new ground in China.
ground-breaking educational reforms
lead the way 探索
The company has led the way in developing environment-friendly products.
summit n. 山顶，顶点；峰会
summit / peak
the summit / peak of his career
The two presidents agreed to hold a summit in the coming spring.
(8课) They hope to finish in time for a trade summit between America and the EU on May 28th.
the crest / pinnacle of one’s career
the apex of a triangle 三角形的顶点
the apex of one’s career
At the zenith of its power, the Yuan Dynasty ruled almost all of the Eurasian continent（亚欧大陆）.
perilous a. 非常危险的（时刻会丧命）
a perilous journey across the mountains
perilous country roads
peril n. 危险
The ship was in grave peril.
a hazardous investment 风险投资
Being the President’s bodyguard is a hazardous occupation.
hazard n. 危险的，有隐患的
a health / safety / fire / traffic hazard
be / present / pose / constitute a hazard to … 构成隐患
The busy traffic entrance is / presents / poses / constitutes a hazard to pedestrains.
(30课) Our knowledge of the oceans a hundred years ago was confined to the two-dimensional shape of the sea surface and the hazards of navigation presented by the irregularities in depth of the shallow water close to the land.
be / present / pose / constitute a threat / menace to … 构成威胁
Inflation may pose a potential threat to China’s social stability.
Religious extremism constitutes a grave menace to the security and stability in the region.
shudder v. 颤抖，不寒而栗，指人、事物都可以
She shuddered at the thought of the murder.
The ship shuddered when she struck the rocks.
抖动 tremble shiver quiver
(3-10课) Suddenly, there was a slight trembling sound from below, and the captain went down to see what had happened.
He trembled with anger / fear / excitement.
solitary a. 唯一的
(3课) They had a single aim, a solitary goal——the top!
loneliness n. （感情上）孤单，难受
(3-42课) Perhaps it is the desire for solitude or the chance of making an unexpected discovery that lures people down to the depths of the earth.
in solitude 独自地
I spent the morning in solitude.
I live in that solitude which is painful in youth, but delicious in the years of maturity. —— Albert Einstein
“sol” = alone
impoverish v. 使贫困
The EU trade policies will impoverish developing countries.
Solar storms deplete ozone layer.
impoverished, destitute a. 贫困的
the institute for the destitute 贫民学院
deprived 被剥夺的，贫困的；disadvantaged，underprivileged 贫困的
underdeveloped countries / regions
flea-ridden a. 布满跳蚤的
flee (fled, fled) 逃跑
(3-13课) When Mrs. Richards walked towards him, he fled, slamming the door behind him.
“-ridden”: full of sth. unpleasant.
boast v. 炫耀，自夸；拥有
boast of / about sth.
boast that …
Every salesman boasts of his own wares.
They boasted that they had never lost a single game.
China and France boast sound bilateral relations.
China and the EU boast consensus on environment.
(3-3课) The city at one time must have been prosperous, for it enjoyed a high level of civilization.
be blessed with … （后天）享有
They were blessed with two children, a boy and a girl.
be endowed with … （天生）拥有
She is endowed with both brains and beauty.
(3-34课) Like a scientist bent on making a discovery, he must cherish the hope that one day he will be amply rewarded.
He cherished the memory of his late wife.（这里，late 表示故去的）
be free from … 没有
The composition is free from errors.
Organic produce is free from harmful chemicals.
(3-27课) He may never be sure where the next meal is coming from, but he is free from the thousands of anxieties which afflict other people.
第一句：Modern alpinists try to climb mountains by a route which will give them good sport, and the more difficult it is, the more highly it is regarded.
modern-day present-day today’s … of today
sport n. [U] fun; amusement 乐趣
Swimming in the sea will give you good sport. （good 多的）
He tormented the cat only for sport.
(18课) On the occasions when they have pushed to shore an unconscious human being they have much more likely done it out of curiosity or for sport, as in riding the bow waves of a ship.
（复习）the …, the …
The younger the child is, the more is the child’s need of sleep. （主语过长，放到后面倒装）
当两个谓语动词都是 be 动词时，可以省略：
=> The younger the child, the more the child’s need of sleep.
The stronger the magnet, the greater the number of lines of magnetic force.
The higher the standard of living is, the greater is the amount of paper used.
=>The higher the standard of living, the greater the amount of paper used.
I play (the) better, the more I practice.
A compound is considered the more stable, the smaller its potential energy.
(37课) We are so familiar with the fact that man ages, that people have for years assumed that the process of losing vigour with time, of becoming more likely to die the older we get, was something self-evident, like the cooling of a hot kettle or the wearing-out of a pair of shoes.
(3-55课) A telescope would have to be as far away as the planet Jupiter to look for like in outer space, because the dust becomes thinner the further we travel towards the outer edges of our own solar system.
第二句：In the pioneering days, however, this was not the case at all.
This is not the case at all. 这根本不是实情。
This is not always the case. 这不总是实情。
This is indeed the case. 这确实是实情。
This is not necessarily the case. 这不总是实情。
This might not be the case. 这可能不是实情。
第三句：The early climbers were looking for the easiest way to the top, because the summit was the prize they sought, especially if it had never been attained before.
the pioneer climbers
their predecessors 前辈
(3-56课) Sometimes we go upstream to a favorite backwater, sometimes we have our party at the boathouse, which a predecessor of ours at the farm built in the meadow hard by the deepest pool for swimming and diving.
这里的 prize：sense of pride / honor / accomplishment
seek v. try to achieve sth.
seek refuge / asylum
The incumbent（现任的） president will not seek reelection（连任）.
第四句：It is true that during their explorations they often faced difficulties and dangers of the most perilous nature, equipped in a manner which would make a modern climber shudder at the thought, but they did not go out of their way to court such excitement.
It is / was true that …, but … 诚然，但是
(3-16课) It was true that he had just bought a lamb, he explained, but his lamb was black.
It is true that China is still a developing country, but she is full of potential / potentialities.
potential / potentialities n. 潜力，潜能。前者不可数，后者常用复数。
Admittedly, / Granted, … but … 诚然，但是
(47课) Granted, a snobbery of camping itself, based upon equipment and techniques, already exists; but it is of a kind that, if he meets it, he can readily understand and deal with.
It is true that / admittedly, granted, …, but / yet:
- that is not to say that …
- is does not necessarily mean that … 这并不意味着
- we cannot ensure / guarantee that …
- there is no guarantee that …
face confront 面对
be faced / confronted with …
China is faced / confronted with the problem of overpopulation.
of a … nature 某一种类的
(3-4课) Such is human nature, that a great many people are often willing to sacrifice higher pay for the privilege of becoming white collar workers.
I can’t approve of things of this nature.
treaties of a political nature 政治性的条约
questions of an academic nature 学术性的问题
articles of a technical nature 技术性的文章
be equipped with …
(3-3课) The city was even equipped with a drainage system, for a great many clay pipes were found beneath the narrow streets.
句中 “equipped in a manner which would make a modern climber shudder at the thought”
at the thought of the manner
at the … of … 一…就…
(3-23课) … your stomach would turn at the idea of frying potatoes in animal fat …
(3-41课) … they always go into raptures at the mere mention of the country …
She screamed at the sight of the murder. 她一看到谋杀就尖叫。
She woke at the sound of the bell. 闹钟一响，她就醒了。
She fainted at the news of her father’s death.
造句：防暴警察（riot police）在体育场外巡逻（patrol the stadium），装备得使足球流氓（soccer hooligan）一看到就不寒而栗。
hooligan 指小流氓；police 本身是复数
Riot police were patrolling the stadium, equipped in a manner which would make a soccer hooligan shudder at the sight.
get out of one’s way (to do …) 特意，不怕麻烦地 …
Please don’t go out of your way for me. 别麻烦了。
It was very kind of you to go out of your way to meet us at the airport.e
第五句：They had a single aim, a solitary goal – the top!
single aim 就是 solitary goal。意义相同，强调。
I’m sick and tired of your silliness.
He is never one to pick and choose.
She is always complaining of her aches and pains.
第七句：Except for one or two places such as Zermatt and Chamonix, which had rapidly become popular, Alpine villages tended to be impoverished settlements cut off from civilization by the high mountains.
except 不能单独放在句首，except for / but for … 除了 …
（复习）except for / but for / if it were not for … 若没有 … 的话
(2课) Insects would make it impossible for us to live in the world; they would devour all our crops and kill our flocks and herds, if it were not for the protection we get from insect-eating animals.
except / but (that) …
intend to do 意图做
tend to do 趋势
have a tendency to do
People tend to need less sleep when they get older.
Women tend to live longer than men.
The drug is effective but has a tendency to cause headaches.
tend to … ~
|mostly||in most cases|
|on the whole||by and large|
|for the most part||most of the time|
- cut off from
- out of touch with
- isolated from
- separated from
第八句：Such inns as there were were generally dirty and flea-ridden; the food simply local cheese accompanied by bread often twelve months old, all washed down with coarse wine.
这一句中 as 引导限定性定语从句
such / the same / as / so … as …
I need the same tool as you are using.
I need such a tool as you are using.
I need as useful a tool as you are using.
The disease is accompanied by sneezing and fever.
strong winds accompanied by heavy rain
wash sth. down with sth.
We ate some sausage, and washed it down with whiskey.
第九句：Often a valley boasted no inn at all, and climbers found shelter wherever they could – sometimes with the local priest who was usually as poor as his parishioners, sometimes with shepherds or cheese-makers.
find one’s way
(2-96课) Specially-made lanterns are hung outside each house to help the dead to find their way.
(3-15课) My nephew, George, has a money box but it is always empty. Very few of the fifty pence pieces and pound coins I have given him have found their way there.
promise to do （事物做主语时）有可能 …
Groundbreaking research by two French geophysicists promises to shed some light on the mystery.
第十一句：For men accustomed to eating seven-course dinners and sleeping between fine linen sheets at home, the change to the Alps must have been very hard indeed.
be accustomed to …
be used to …
be in the habit of …
(21课) Men accustomed to struggling for survival against the elements and Indians were bewildered by politicians, bankers and businessmen, and unhorsed by fences, laws and alien taboos.